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Advantages and disadvantages of macro nutrients

We may need everything for our plants, as we know when macro and micro elements are less certain our plants grow less well, So if the excess element, how come ???
So essentially in terms of fertilizing macro fertilizer and micro fertilizer must be balanced Here is a description that team natural nusantara cirebon get about the problem of excess and lack of nutrients in the plant, if any addition please share below.
 Some nutrients needed by plants:
 Nitrogen (n), carbon (c), hydrogen (h), oxygen (o), phosphorus (p), potassium (k), calcium (ca), magnesium (mg), sulfur (s), iron (fe), Manganese (mn), boron (b), mo, copper (cu), zinc (zn) and chlorine (cl).

Macro nutrients
 1. nitrogen (n)
Stimulates overall plant growth.
Is part of the cells (organs) of the plant itself.
Serves to synthesize amino acids and proteins in plants.
Stimulating vegetative growth (green color) such as leaves.
Symptoms: slow growth / dwarf, yellowish green leaves, narrow leaves, short and erect, old leaves quickly turn yellow and dead. 1.

Nutrient deficiency of nitrogen (n)
  1. The color of the leaves is a bit yellowish green and in this color rice plants ranging from leaf end to leaf bone then turned into complete yellow, so the whole plant is pale yellowish. Dead leaf tissue and this is what causes the leaf further to become dry and brownish red.
  2. Growth of slow and dwarf plants
  3. The development of imperfect or unfavorable fruits, often ripe prematurely
  4. Can cause leaves full of fiber, this is due to leaf cell membrane membrane while the cell itself is small
  5. In a state of severe shortage, the leaves become dry, starting from the bottom down to the top
Excess nutrient nitrogen (n)

The color of leaves is too green, leafy plants with leaves. The disposal process becomes old. Adenium will be sekulen because it contains a lot of water. It's vulnerable to attacks of fungi and disease, and easily collapsed. Decreased flower production.

2. pospor (p)
Serves to transport the energy of metabolism in plants.
Stimulating flowering and fertilization.
Stimulate root growth.
Stimulate the formation of seeds.
Stimulate cell plant division and enlarge cell tissue.

Lack of element p
The formation of fruit / and seeds is reduced, dwarf, purplish or reddish leaves (less healthy).
  1. Stunted growth of root systems, stems and leaves
  2. The color of the leaves entirely turns to dark green / greyish, shiny, often there is a red pigment on the lower leaves, then die. On the edges of leaves, branches and stems there is a purple red color that gradually turns yellow.
  3. The yield of plants in the form of flowers, fruits and seeds declined. The fruit is dwarf, looks ugly and quickly
 Excess nutrient phosphorus (p)
Excess p causes absorption of other elements especially micro elements such as iron (fe), copper (cu), and zinc (zn) disrupted. But the symptoms are not physically visible in plants.

3. potassium (k)

Functioning in the process of photosynthesis, transporting assimilation results, enzymes and minerals including water.
Increase endurance / plant resistance to disease.
Plants that lack the elements of the symptoms: stems and leaves become limp / falling, the leaves are dark green and bluish green is not fresh green and healthy, the tip of the leaves yellow and dry, brown spots appear on the leaf buds.

Nutrient deficiency of potassium (k)
Deficiency / lack of potassium is rather difficult to know the symptoms, because these symptoms are rarely shown when the plants are young.
The leaves turn to shrivel aka curling (for the potato plant will roll up) and sometimes shiny especially on old leaves, but not evenly. Then since the edges and edges of the leaves appear yellow, this color is also visible between the bones of the leaves in the end the leaves look dirty spots (brown red), often also this streaked part fell so that the leaves look jagged and then die
  1. The stems are weak and short, so the plants look dwarfed
  2. The fruit grows imperfect, small, the quality is ugly, the result is low and can not stand to be stored
  3. In coconut and citrus, the fruit is easily deciduous
  4. For the bulbous plants, the yield is very less and the hydrate content is so low
  5. Especially for rice plants, symptoms of lack of potassium elements can be explained as follows:

A. leaf
Leaves of rice plants lacking potassium will be dark green with the number of spots that resemble rust color. The spots first appear on the top of an old leaf, the tip of the leaf and the edges become necrotic, reddish brown or yellow brown. Old leaves, especially in the middle of the day will droop and young leaves roll upward and show symptoms of water shortage

B. Stem
Stems of rice plants that lack potassium will grow short and thin. And most potassium-deficient rice varieties fall more easily

C. root
Root growth is usually very limited, the root tip will grow thin and short, and the roots always tend to be colorless and black. The roots of branches and roots are very thin and always show symptoms of root decay.

D. Grains and panicles
Growth will be short and generally have a high percentage of fruit void. While the number of grains that contain for each strand will be low, the grains will be small and irregular in shape, the quality and weight of 1,000 grains will be reduced, the percentage of undeveloped and immature grains grows.
4. calcium (ca)

Is an important part of the cell wall and is very important to support the growth process.
Calcium is to make chlorophyll.
It takes enzymes for metabolic carbohydrates, and activates meristem cells.
Calcium deficiency leads to disintegration of the ends of the plant (rod ends, roots, and fruits) so that the tip becomes dry or dead, the young leaf buds will grow abnormally.

Lack of calcium nutrients (ca)

A. Young leaves in addition to wrinkles have color changes, at the edges and edges of chlorosis (turn yellow) and this color radiates between the bones of the leaves, leaf tissues in some dead places
B. The young buds that have grown will die
C. The growth of the root system is inhibited, not perfect even often wrong form
D. Plant growth is so weak and suffering

Excess calcium nutrients (ca)

Excess k causes absorption of ca and mg disrupted. Stunted plant growth.
So the plant is deficient.

5. magnesium (mg)
Is the main constituent of chlorophyll which determines the rate of photosynthesis / carbohydrate formation.
Serves to transport phosphate.
Creating a green color on the leaves.
Magnesium deficiency is yellowing of the leaves starting from the lower end of the leaf.

Lack of magnesium (mg)
A. Old leaves have chlorosis (turn yellow) and appear between the bones of the leaves, while the bones of the leaves themselves remain green. The part between the bones of the leaves was regularly turned yellow with brownish red spots
B. The leaves are flammable by the sun because they do not have a waxy coat, so many of them change color to dark brown / blackish and shrink
C. On grain crops, less seed / weak seed, even if it keeps growing then it will look very weak

Excess nutrients magnesium (mg)

Excess mg does not cause extreme symptoms.

6. sulfur / sulfur (s)

The formation of amino acids and the growth of shoots as well as help the formation of nodule root roots
Growth of saplings in plants
Play a role in chlorophyll formation and increase resistance to fungi
In some types of plants, among others, function to form oil compounds that produce aroma and enzyme activator form papain
The symptoms of sulfur deficiency in plants generally resemble the deficiency of unsurnitrogen. For example, the leaves are pale green to yellow, thin and dwarf plants, the development is slow.

Nutrient deficiency of sulfur (s)
A. Young leaves have chlorosis (turn yellow), the color changes generally occur in all young leaves, sometimes shiny whitish and sometimes uneven changes but lasts on the leaf more
B. Leaf color changes can also become yellow altogether, so the plants look yellow and green leafy, such as the symptoms that appear on the leaves of tea plants in some places in kenya known as yellow tea or yellow disease,
C. Plants grow late, dwarf, short stems and skinny, fibrous tree trunks, woody and small diameter
D. In sugar cane plants that cause low sugar yield
E. The number of tillers is limited.

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