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Visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency (deficiency) in plants

In general, symptoms of nutrient deficiency (deficiency) on plant leaves are divided into 5 types namely;
A). Chlorosis; Namely the state of the plant tissue, especially on the leaves, which suffered damage or failure of chlorophyll formation so that the leaves change color to yellow or pale almost white that appear uniform.
B). necrosis ; Ie damage caused by damage to the cell or damage to the cell part of the leaf, symptoms of necrosis appear on the leaf edge or leaf tip.
C). Lack of new growth; Namely the cessation of new growth, both on shoots and leaves. This can result in death at the end or shoots and leaves, dieback or rosetting.
D). Anthocyanin accumulation; Namely the emergence of red, blue and purple on all parts of leaves and stems. An anthocyanin is a phenolic pigment expressed as a red, blue and purple character, present in a cell vacuole. Anthocyanin synthesis occurs during leaf growth, senesens, and when plants respond to abiotic stress (sukartini and jawal, 2009).
E). Stunting; Growth of dwarf plants with normal green or dark green or yellow.
Normally, a deficiency of a nutrient or nutrient element in the plant will produce nutrient deficiency characteristics that may only be corrected with the application of the element. For example the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency (n) will produce yellow leaf characteristics due to chlorophyll deficiency, this symptom can be overcome by the application of fertilizers containing nitrogen. As mentioned above, if it is not observant and does not have sufficient knowledge the identification of deficiencies of several nutrients that occur simultaneously will be difficult to distinguish because the symptoms become more complex.
The following are examples of visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency in tomato leaves:

1. crop characteristics lack of nitrogen (n)
 Features of nitrogen deficiency
Features: plants with deficiency of nitrogen can be identified by observing the lower leaves. The leaves on the bottom is yellow because of lack of chlorophyll or green leaf substance, over time the leaves will dry and fall. Bone leaves under the surface of young leaves will look pale, slow plant growth, dwarf and weak. Consequently the plant will not grow normally, the production of flowers and seeds or low fruit is not even able to produce at all. Lack of nitrogen (n) element can be overcome by the application of fertilizers containing nitrogen elements, such as urea, za, kno3 or by spraying of leaf fertilizers that have high nitrogen content. Keep in mind that the application of nitrogen fertilizer should also not be excessive. Nitrogen excess causes plants to become susceptible to fungi and bacteria, easily collapsed, broken stems, slow flowering, flowering and fruit production decreases.

2. plant characteristics lack of phosphorus (p)
Characteristics of phosphorus deficiency 

characteristic features ; Phosphorus deficiency is seen with the appearance of a purplish red color on the underside of leaves, especially leaf bone. Twisted leaves, leaf edges, stems and branches are also purple because of the formation of anthocyanins. The symptoms of p elemental deficiency begin in old leaves that turn color into purplish and tend to be gray. Leaf edges to brown, dark green leaf bones. Leaf edges like burning, small leaf growth, dwarf, and finally fall. Growth is slow and dwarf plants. Phosphorus deficiency leads to inhibition of root system and fertilization in plants. Excess p causes absorption of other elements especially micro elements such as iron (fe), copper (cu), and zinc (zn) disrupted. But the symptoms are not physically visible in plants.
Deficiency or deficiency of phosphorus (p) can be overcome by fertilizer containing phosphorus, such as tsp fertilizer, sp 18, sp 36 or npk fertilizer.
3. crop characteristics lack of potassium (k)
Characteristics of deficiency of potassium (k) 
characteristic features ; The symptoms of elemental deficiency k are rather difficult to recognize because they are rarely revealed when the plants are young. Lack of k elements is characterized by shriveling leaves, especially old leaves even if not evenly distributed. Edge and tip of yellowing leaves, then into brown spots. These leaf spots finally fall, so the leaves look jagged and eventually die. If the plants bear fruit, then the fruits are formed not perfect, small, poor quality, and can not stand to save. Deficiency k seen from the bottom of the leaf is dry or there is a scorch mark. The lack of this element causes the leaf to burn and eventually fall. Flowers easily fall out and fall. Leaf edges 'charred', leaves rolled down, and susceptible to disease attacks.
Potassium deficiency can be overcome by fertilizer containing potassium (k) elements, such as kcl, npk, and leaf manure with high k content.
4. crop characteristics lack of sulfur (s)
The characteristics of the lack of sulfur / sulfur (s)
haracteristic features ; Symptoms of sulfur or sulfur (s) deficiency are characterized by the color of young leaves fade or chlorosis, turning to light green, sometimes seeming uneven, yellow or slightly white. Plant growth becomes obstructed, stunted, short-stem, and lean.
The amount of s required by plants is equal to the amount of phosphorus (p). It inhibits protein synthesis and this can lead to chlorosis such as nitrogen deficiency. Deficiency suppresses the growth of shoots rather than root growth. The symptoms of deficiency are more visible in young leaves with the color of the yellowing leaves as their mobility is very low in the plant (haneklaus and the decrease of chlorophyll content drastically on the leaves is a typical symptom of plants that have deficiency s deficiency causing protein synthesis correlated with accumulation N and dissolved organic nitrate.
The handling of the s elemental deficiency in the plant is done by fertilization using fertilizer containing element s, for example za (s = 20), phonska (s = 10), and leaf fertilizer containing element s.
5. crop characteristics lack calcium (ca)
Features of calcium deficiency (ca) 
characteristic features ; The symptoms of calcium deficiency are indicated by the appearance of symptoms such as the death of the growing point on the shoots and roots, bud flowers and premature fruits, uneven fruit color, cracked fruit, for example in tomatoes, rotted flower stalks, especially on tomatoes and peppers, Because the seeds fail to form, for example in nuts, young brown leaf and continue to roll, for example in corn, as well as leaves twisted and shriveled, especially on tobacco. Symptoms of calcium deficiency is a weak point of growth, leaf shape changes, curling, small, and eventually fall out. Calcium causes the plant to be high but not stocky. Because the direct effect on the point of growing the lack of this element causes the production of interest is inhibited. The fall is also the effects of calcium deficiency.
How to overcome calcium deficiency for plants is to add dolomite lime (ca = 38), calcium carbonate (ca = 90), and calcium fertilizer content 80-90 ca.
7. the characteristics of plants lack of iron (fe)
Features of iron deficiency (fe) 
characteristic features ; Iron deficiency is indicated by symptoms of chlorosis and yellowing or necrous leaves. Young leaves look white because less chlorophyll.
Otherwise it happens because of root damage. If adenium removed from the pot will be seen pieces of dead roots. Fe deficiency symptoms are characterized by yellow color on young leaves, stunted plant growth, leaves drop dead shoots, green leaf bones turn yellowish, then whiten, plant growth as stalled.
Iron or fe is a micro element for plants. Fe is absorbed in the form of ferric ion (fe3 +) or fero (fe2 +). Fe in plants about 80 are present in chloroplasts or cytoplasm. Another function of fe is the execution of electrons in metabolic processes, such as reduction of n 2, reductase nitrate. Fe deficiency leads to inhibition of chlorophyll formation and ultimately also affects protein preparation
The application of fertilizer with high fe content causes necrosis which is characterized by the appearance of black spots on the leaves. 

8. crop characteristics lack of boron (b)
Characteristics of the lack of boron elements (b)  
characteristic features ; The leaves are darker than normal, thick, and contracted leaves. These nutrient deficiency symptoms are inhibited plant growth in meristematic tissues (shoots, roots), die back, low mobility, developing fruits are highly susceptible, susceptible to disease. In branched plants, shortened crop segments, porous stems, branch formation grow parallel to side by side.
Boron functions in plants, among others, play a role in the metabolism of nucleic acids, carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, and auksi. In addition boron also plays a role in cell division, elongation and differentiation, membrane permeability, and pollen germination.
Boron has a close relationship with the process of formation, division and differentiation, and division of cell tasks. It is related to its role in synthetic rna, the basic ingredient of cell formation. Boron is transported from the roots to the plant canopy through the xylem vessels. In the soil boron is available in limited quantities and easily washable. Boron deficiency is most common in adenium. Its character resembles variegeta leaves.
9. crop characteristics lack copper element (cu)
Characteristics of copper element deficiency (cu) 

characteristic features ; Leaves are bluish-green, buds leaf buds and grow small, the growth of flowers is inhibited. The symptoms of copper deficiency are marked with bluish green leaves, uneven leaves wilting, sometimes chlorosis even though the tissue is not dead, the growth of dwarf plants and failed to form flowers.
Most copper is present in chloroplasts (> 50) and bound by plastocyanine. Copper plays a role in activating cytochrome-oxidase enzymes, ascorbic-oxidase, butyric acid-phenolase and lactase. Copper also plays a role in protein and carbohydrate metabolism, generative development, symbiotic n fixation and lignin preparation
An important function of copper is the activator and carries several enzymes. He also plays a role to help smooth the process of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll formers, and play a role in reproductive function. Copper (cu) excesses result in dwarf plants, limited branching, stunted root formation, thickened and dark roots.

10. plant characteristics lack of manganese element (mn)
Characteristic of lack of manganese element (mn) 

characteristic features ; The symptoms of manganese deficiency are characterized by the growth of dwarf plants, yellowish or reddish leaves, leaf tissue in some dead places and imperfectly formed seeds. Nutrient deficiency, or in other words nutrient deficiency, may cause abnormal plant growth to be caused by a deficiency of one or more nutrients, the disorder may be a specific visual symptom. Manganese (mn) is a constituent of ribosomes and also activates polymerase, protein synthesis, carbohydrates. Acting as an activator for a number of major enzymes in the krebs cycle, required for normal photosynthetic function in chloroplasts, there is an indication needed in chlorophyll synthesis.
Deficiency of mn elements include: in wide-leaved plants, interveinal chlorosis in young leaves is similar to fe hardness but more extends to older leaves, to grayish-colored cereals to brownish and streaks in the middle and bottom Young leaves, split seeds in lupine plants.
Identification of symptoms of manganese deficiency is relative, often deficiency of one nutrient along with other nutrient excess. On the field is not easy to distinguish the symptoms of deficiency. Not infrequently pest and disease diseases resemble symptoms of micro nutrient deficiency. Symptoms can occur due to various causes. The symptoms of manganese deficiency show necrotic spots on the leaves. The mobility of manganese is complex and depends on the species and age of the plant so that early symptoms can be seen in younger leaves or older leaves .. manganese deficiency is characterized by yellowing of the leaf area between leaf bones. While the leaf bone itself remains green. 

11. crop characteristics lack of zinc (zn)
Characteristics of zinc deficiency (zn) 

characteristic features ; Symptoms of zinc deficiency are characterized by yellowish or reddish leaves, perforated leaves, dry and eventually die. Slow growth, short-range spacing, dwarf leaves, shrinking, or rolling on one side and then followed by hair loss. The fruit will turn yellow, open, and eventually fall. The fruit will be more limp so that the fruit should be straight bent.
The zinc element serves to activate the enzyme anolase, aldolase, oxalic acid, decarboxylase, lecithimase, cysteine ​​desulfihidrase, histidine deaminase, super okside demutase, dehydrogenase, carbon anhydrase, proteinase and peptidase. Zinc elements also play a role in auxin biosynthesis, elongation of cells and stem segments.
Zinc excess (zn) does not show any real impact on plants. Almost similar to mn and mg, sting plays a role in enzyme activator, chlorophyll formation and helps the process of photosynthesis. Deficiencies usually occur in long-used media.

12. crop characteristics lack the element of molybdenum (mo)
The characteristics of the lack of molybdenum element (mo) 

characteristic features ; Deficiency of the molybdenum element (mo) is indicated by the appearance of chlorosis in the old leaves, then spreading to young leaves.
Molybdenum (mo) serves as an electron carrier to convert nitrate into an enzyme. This element also plays a role in nitrogen fixation. Excess does not show real symptoms in adenium. Way of handling micro element deficiency is by adding high organic fertilizer, giving of organic liquid fertilizer for aftersuration as well as spraying of leaf fertilizer with complete micro content.

13. crop characteristics lack the element of sodium (na) or sodium
characteristic features ; The leaves can be dark green and thin. Plants quickly become withered.
Elements of sodium or sodium are involved in osmosis (water movement) and ion balance in plants. One of the advantages of na negative effects is that it can reduce the availability of k.

14. crop-deficient features of cobalt (co) 
Lack of cobalt (co) element can reduce the formation of hemoglobin and nitrogen fixation. Cobalt is much higher for nitrogen fixation than ammonium nutrition. The level of nitrogen deficiency can lead to symptoms of deficiency.

15. crop characteristics lack of nickel element (ni)
The lack of nickel in the plant will cause failure to produce a proper seed.

The nickel element (ni) is required for the urease enzyme to decompose urea in the release of nitrogen into a form that can be used for plants. Nickel is required for the absorption of iron. Seeds need nickel to germinate. Plants growing without additional nickel will gradually reach the level of deprivation as they mature and begin reproductive growth

16. crop characteristics lack the element of silicone (si)

Si can improve yield by improving the efficiency of photosynthesis and inducing resistance to pests and diseases found as components of the cell wall. Plants with the supply of soluble silicon produce stronger plants, increase the heat and dryness of plants, the silicon tolerance can be stored by plants in place of infection by the fungus to combat the penetration of the cell wall by attacking fungus.
Lack of silicon can lead to plants susceptible to disease.

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